The latest Iraqi feature filmmaker, Mohamed al-Daradji, found funding first in the Netherlands and then in the United Kingdom, where he now lives. Many of the films were based on Egyptian or Western commercial formulas, with no spe- cific Lebanese identity even the dialogue of many films was in Egyptian dialect , and the key development required — the creation of the infrastructure needed for a film industry to rival Egypt — could not be achieved. In Algeria, it was a Frenchman, Jacques Charby, who shot the first Algerian-produced feature film after inde- pendence. His efforts lead seemingly inevitably to his death but would in any case have been in vain, since Noura is married against her will in his absence. Al-Dhahery, Hessa Abdulla Rashed. She directed a te- lefilm: Omar Amiralay, the sole documentarist in the group, who trained in France, has cho- sen to live in exile there since the early s, after his first feature-length work.
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Born in Saudi Arabia, she studied first English liter- ature at the American University in Cairo and then management and human resources at the University of Minnesota. His dreams of escape are hindered by his wife’s bedridden old father, so Ako finds himself conscripted into the Iraqi army, to fight for a cause that is not his. He has made numerous short docu- mentary films. Born in , he obtained a diploma in com- munication at the University of the Emirati and then studied filmmaking in the United States in Given the upheavals of this pre-indepen- dence period, it is remarkable that any film activity at all occurred.
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Haitham Shomali Enta Habibi 2012 هيثم الشوملي انت حبيبي
Hope for liberation and independence. Hope for a normal life where haitha shall be neither heroes nor victims. Hope to see our children go to school without danger. Hope for a pregnant woman to give birth to a living baby, in a hospital, and not to a dead child in front of a military control post. Hope that our poets will see the beauty of the colour red hiatham roses, rather than in blood.
Haitham Shomali, – انا اسف في اليوم الدي احببتكي
Hope that this land will recover its original name: Thank you for carrying with us this banner of hope. In compiling it, I have drawn on the full range of material listed in the bibliography at the end of this volume. The principal published sources on which I have drawn, which demand special mention and which all contain more informa- tion on specific films and filmmakers than can be contained here, are, in order of publication: Diccionario de realizadores Madrid: Appunti sul nuovo cinema palestinese Paler- mo: On Palestinian Cinema London: Landscape, Trauma and Memory Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, Equally indispensable have been Cine- mArabe Paris,International Film Guide London, Images Nord-Sud Paris, fromand the catalogues and web pages of various film festi- vals: Individuals to whom I owe a very real and specific debt for information and encourage- ment beyond the call of duty are numerous.
I owe a huge debt to Martine Leroy, for access to her data base on Middle Eastern films. Moreover, I am deeply grateful to the Leverhulme Trust for awarding me the sec- ond Leverhulme Emeritus Fellowship, which has allowed me to finance both this dictionary and its predecessor, the Dictionary of African Filmmakers. Though I have made every effort to check the information given, errors and omissions are inevitable in a work of this nature, and I would welcome contact from any readers who can help correct the mistakes and fill the gaps.
Their names are listed at the end of the relevant feature film chronol- ogy, but their work is not indexed.
The Arab Middle East has not developed the kind of overwhelming output of fictional features on video, characteristic of Anglophone Africa especially Nigeria, where many thousands of feature-length videos have been produced and distributed since the sso I have been able to include work shot on video princi- pally Beta SP and more recently FIDas well as 35mm and 16mm film productions.
Refer- ence is also made to the increasing quantity of documentary material produced by the vari- ous Arab satellite television companies and intended principally for broadcasting.
A1 Jazeera English, sjomali example, has of late pro- vided both funding and considerable editorial freedom for documentary filmmakers from the wider Arab world.
It is interesting too to shomalli that, despite the technological develop- ments and new promotional strategies which are likely to lead to a totally different media situation in the coming decade, the bulk of fic- tional feature films made in the Arab Middle East, like those in Africa, continue to be shot and distributed for initial exhibition purposes on hsitham film.
The catalogues of the twenti- eth, twenty-first, and twenty-second editions of the JCC Journees Cinematographiques de Carthage, Tunis, and show the continued strength and importance of conventional 35mm filmmaking across Africa and the Arab world, as well as the growing number of works, even by established film- makers, which are digitally produced and reflect television formats: In general, I have included in my chrono- logical listings of fictional features all those works which are treated as such by the orga- nizers of Arab and international film festivals, even if the works in question do not, strictly speaking, fulfill the conventional length re- quirements of a feature film.
With regard to documentary production now almost en- tirely in some digital format or otherI have excluded from the feature listings all works gaitham the conventional minute television format, though such works are referred to, of course, in the individual filmmaker entries.
The result, at the moment of going to press, is a list of over feature-length works made by around fea- ture hatham, whose efforts are backed up by those of some short and documentary haithham, many of them students graduat- ing from one of the numerous audio-visual training courses baitham the area. Shomxli dictionary offers broadly the same kind of information as that contained in its predecessor, the Dictionary of African Film- makers.
The work begins with an introduc- tion, which sets out shomalu place the filmmaking in its ehomali context. In an area like the Middle East, which has been constantly torn by war and internal strife, it seemed to me crucial to spell out this contextual situation, because it has had so profound an influence on the work of all feature filmmakers and has also led to the production of a mass of committed documentary filmmaking.
Part 1 comprises an alphabetical listing of all the Arab filmmakers from the Middle East whom I have been able to locate. The names of those who have completed at least one fictional or documentary feature-length film shot on 35mm, 16mm film, or in some video format are distinguished by being set in capital let- ters.
Because of the nature of film production in the Middle East, particularly in, and in rela- tion to, Palestine, the listing of filmmakers in- cludes documentary and short film directors. Here too I have relaxed — as the filmmakers themselves do — any distinction between film and video productions. Film entries in these director listings include mention of date, length, and format, where this information is available.
Part 2 deals in alphabetical order with the countries to which the feature filmmak- ers are conventionally aligned. Because of the minimal amount of feature filmmaking that has occurred to date in the seven states of the Haithham, these are haittham together at the end though there are huge differences between Yemen and its royal or princely shmali.
Each chronology of national feature -film out- put is preceded by a list of feature filmmakers, followed by a similar listing of relevant short and documentary filmmakers, and supple- mented by a selection of bibliographical ref- erences.
The dates of films given here can be no more than approximate, since I have used a wide variety of sources, some employing pro- duction dates and others using release dates. Part 3 is an index of feature-film titles in both English and French. The Arabic transcriptions of the film titles are very simplified forms, de- rived from a variety of national sources and intended merely to identify and differentiate films, which, shoamli many cases, do not have for- mal English or French titles.
These transcrip- tions are not indexed. The bibliography lists books on relevant aspects of world cinema and book-length studies of Arab filmmaking within the Middle East, as well as a shomai of books relating to the political development of the various coun- tries and areas of the Middle East.
Filmmaking in Divided Lands This dictionary is concerned with the films directed by Arab filmmakers in and from the Middle East. It excludes filmmakers from the Maghreb and from Egypt except for the handful of Egyptian filmmakers who have made the occasional film for Middle Eastern producersas these have already been dealt with in an earlier volume.
Dictionary of Afri- can Filmmakers. A noble but embattled state. It is a striking testimony to the former power and con- tinuing influence of the West that this parochial term, haiitham only in a Western perspective, has come to be used all over the world. It is even used by the peoples of the region it denotes to describe their own homelands.
This is the more remarkable in an age of national, communal, and regional self-assertion, mostly in anti-Western form.
It is a story of internal feud- ing and repeated defeat and humiliation at the hands of Israel and its all-powerful patrons. The fragmented history of Arab Middle East- ern cinema — with its powerful documentary component — reflects all too clearly the frag- mented history of the Arab peoples and is in- deed comprehensible only when this history is taken into account.
While neighboring coun- tries, such as Turkey, Israel, and Iran, have co- herent national film histories which have been comprehensively documented, the Arab Mid- dle East has been given comparatively little at- tention. Screenings were set up in the palace and at the residences of prominent citizens, and a first public screening was arranged at the Spontek Restaurant in a cosmopolitan dis- trict of Istanbul. They all stopped there during trips to Moscow, still ruled by the tsar.
The resulting shots taken in the Ottoman Empire appeared in the Lumiere catalogue from The Pathe representative in the Ottoman Empire, a Polish Jew with Rumanian nation- ality, Sigmund Weinburg, was also apparently active as early as and indeed had a more lasting impact on the introduction of cin- ema to Turkey, by setting up the first perma- nent public cinema in He also initially headed the army film unit, which pioneered filmmaking in Turkey at the beginning of the First World War, before being expelled as an alien.
Though the sultan, Abdul Hamid II, was a passionate supporter of photography, he disliked the cinema and offered no sup- port to the foreigners who were seeking to in- troduce it into his realm. Promio is quoted as saying: I have little to say about my trip to Tur- key, except that I had great difficulty in introducing my camera.
Defeat left Turkey at the mercy of its wartime enemies, and the victorious Eu- ropean states, France and Britain, occupied the whole Middle East and proceeded to im- pose their will upon the remains of the Em- pire. One of the many crucial European deci- sions and agreements regarding the Middle East had already been made inwith the unilateral declaration of support for the es- tablishment of a Jewish homeland in Pales- tine by the British foreign secretary, Arthur Balfour.
This declaration led directly to the establishment of Israel in and changed the course of history in the Middle East for- ever. Chillingly, Balfour is quoted as saying that, In Palestine we do not propose even to go through the form of consulting the wishes of the present inhabitants of the country.
Zionism, be it right or wrong, good or bad, is rooted in age-old traditions, in present needs, in future hopes, of far profounder import than the desires and prejudices of theArabs who now inhabit that ancient land. In the early s, when Turkey trans- formed itself in defeat from an empire and caliphate into a modern secular nation-state built on the European model, various propos- als were put forward by Arab leaders for the reshaping of their own lands. But emboldened by the increasing retreat of the United States into isolationism after the wartime inter- ventionist idealism of Woodrow Wilson, the French and British governments felt able to ignore Arab wishes just as Balfour had done in The changes they made while their troops occupied the Middle East met with far greater opposition than Turkish rule had ever faced.
There were revolts against the French in Syria in, anda major uprising against the British in Iraq inand con- tinual fighting in Palestine, which stemmed from Arab opposition to increasing Jewish settlement. But French and English power prevailed. The Arabs had all these. As Anderson points out, the apparently innocent practice common to European impe- rial states of coloring their colonies on maps pink-red for British colonies, purple-blue for French, yellow-brown for Dutch had an un- anticipated outcome: The image shifted from being the map of an existing reality to becom- ing the sign of an imaginary unity: What stood in the way of an Arab state was not internal barriers.
Ex- ternal forces kept the Arabs apart. On this basis, the French and the British took upon themselves not just the definition and boundaries of the new states but also the choice of their systems of govern- ment and the identity of the rulers who were installed. What had been Greater Syria was divided up to create three new states, Syria and Lebanon under French mandates and Pal- estine under the British, who promptly subdi- vided their area to create a fourth state, Trans- jordan.
Also under British mandate was the newly created state of Iraq, put together from three ethnically and religiously diverse Otto- man provinces, centered on Mosul, Baghdad, and Basra, respectively. The mandates were finalized by the mids, but though the ostensible aim was for these new states to be led toward independence, this occurred only in the very changed circumstances of the late s.
No account was taken of Kurdish de- mands for their own independent state in the north, while the new Middle Eastern arrange- ments totally ignored Saudi Arabia, out of which Ibn Saud was to create a fully indepen- dent state byand the already indepen- dent North Yemen, presumably because both were judged too difficult to colonize. Given the upheavals of this pre-indepen- dence period, it is remarkable that any film activity at all occurred. Both were silent features that found themselves in com- petition with the first Egyptian sound films.
A further Lebanese pioneer, Ali al-Ariss, was less fortu- nate. He had to leave his first feature, The Flow- er Seller unfinished, and he is reported to have protested outside the cinema screen- ing his second feature, The Planet of the Desert Princessbecause it had been re-edited by the producer.
Iraq achieved its independence inSyria and Lebanon obtained theirs inthe same year that the Hashemite Kingdom of Trans-Jordan was cre- ated to be renamed Jordan in Even be- fore they could accustom themselves to their new, artificial, boundaries and their imposed systems of government, they were plunged into war, when the state of Israel was formally established in The ill-prepared, disunited, and badly led Arab troops were no match for an Israeli army strengthened by the inclusion of the Hagana and Irgun paramilitary forces.
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The eventual truce in left Israel firmly established and with its boundaries extended to take in anoth- haittham 20 percent of what the United Nations had intended to be Palestinian territory. The Arab-Israeli war was just the first of a seemingly endless series of inter- national wars, invasions, conflicts, and expul- sions to have plagued the Middle East over the past 60 years. There were three further general Arab-Israeli conflicts: Israels first invasion of Lebanon Opera- tion Litani in was followed by a second Operation Peace for Galilee in